The basis for the film's plot is the novel by Mikhail Bulgakov: The White Guard. The Kuban Cossacks joined the White Army and conscription of both peasants and Cossacks began. The Eastern Front started in spring 1918 as a secret movement among army officers and right-wing socialist forces. Many of the White leaders accepted autocracy while remaining suspicious of "politics," which they characterized as consisting of speeches, elections, and party activities. The defeated anti-Bolshevik Russians went into exile, congregating in Belgrade, Berlin, Paris, Harbin, Istanbul, and Shanghai. The description of the house of the Turbins is that of the house of the Bulgakov family in Kiev. The White Guard first appeared in serial form in the Soviet-era literary journal Rossiya in 1925, but the magazine was closed down before the serial was completed. During the Russian Civil War the White movement functioned as a big-tent political movement representing an array of political opinions in Russia united in their opposition to the communist Bolsheviks—from the republican-minded liberals and Kerenskyite social-democrats on the left through monarchists and supporters of a united multinational Russia to the ultra-nationalist Black Hundreds on the right. The designation of Guards was subsequently adopted as a distinction for various units and formations of the Soviet Union and the modern Russian Federation. Aerial forces available to the Whites included the Slavo-British Aviation Corps (S.B.A.C.). In 2008 Yale University Press published a translation by Marian Schwartz of the complete novel, an edition which won an award. After capturing the Donbass, Tsaritsyn and Kharkov in June, Denikin's forces launched an attack towards Moscow on 3 July, (N.S.). The Whites wanted to keep from alienating any potential supporters and allies and thus saw an exclusively monarchist position as a detriment to their cause and recruitment. In March, 3,000 men under the command of General Viktor Pokrovsky joined the Volunteer Army, increasing its membership to 6,000, and by June to 9,000. Unlike the Bolsheviks, the White Armies did not share a single ideology, methodology, or political goal. At first it depended entirely upon volunteers in Russia proper, mostly the Cossacks, among the first to oppose the Bolshevik Government. Sven Anders Hedin, Folke Bergman (1944). Some warlords who were aligned with the White movement, such as Grigory Semyonov and Roman Ungern von Sternberg, did not acknowledge any authority but their own. It was not reprinted in Russia until 1966. Following the military defeat of the Whites, remnants and continuations of the movement remained in several organizations, some of which only had narrow support, enduring within the wider White émigré overseas community until after the fall of the European communist states in the Eastern European Revolutions of 1989 and the subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990–1991. White-movement leaders, such as Anton Denikin, advocated for Russians to create their own government, claiming the military could not decide in Russians' steads. The novel contains many autobiographical elements. [24], The White Armies were often lawless and disordered. [2], The series has received unanimously negative comments from all sides, the alterations of Bulgakov's novel and the acting skills of the actors being particularly criticised[3], The Ukrainian Culture Ministry decides not to issue distribution licenses for it as they "show contempt for the Ukrainian language, people and the state," and "some facts are distorted to benefit Russia." Will Self on The White Guard by Mikhail Bulgakov At its première in 1926, Bulgakov's play about the Russian intelligentsia caused members of the … Stockholm: Göteborg, Elanders boktryckeri aktiebolag. The Civil War was officially declared over at this point, although Anatoly Pepelyayev still controlled the Ayano-Maysky District at that time. Retrieved 2010-11-28.. Great Britain. Civil wars followed, wherein the anti-Communist side may be referred to as White Armies, e.g. [7] Starting off as a small and well-organized military in January 1918, the Volunteer Army soon grew. Latvian SSR CWP of Estonia Mongolian People's Party Chinese communists. However, the German Empire was defeated on the fronts of the First World War, the Hetman fled with the Germans, and a few Russian officers and cadets remained the only force able to stand in the way of the followers of Symon Petliura coming to Kiev. [4], Белая гвардия — интервью со сценаристами фильма, Лауреаты премии «Золотой орёл» за 2012 год,, Pages using infobox television with nonstandard dates, Articles containing Russian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Yuri Itskov as Vasilisa (Lisovich), a neighbor of Turbin family, Sergei Barkovsky as father Alexander, priest, Alexander Ilyin as Director of High School, Dennis Reyshahrit as cashier in the cinema theater, Written by: Marina Dyachenko, Sergey Dyachenko, Sergey Snezhkin, This page was last edited on 7 July 2020, at 12:43. White Russians also served alongside the Soviet Red Army during the Soviet invasion of Xinjiang and the Islamic rebellion in Xinjiang in 1937. The White movement had access to various naval forces, both seagoing and riverine, especially the Black Sea Fleet. They were led by conservative generals with different agendas and methods, and for the most part they operated quite independently of each other, with little coordination or cohesion. A Russian cadet corps was established to prepare the next generation of anti-Communists for the "spring campaign"—a hopeful term denoting a renewed military campaign to reconquer Russia from the Soviet Government. Other organizations either dissolved, or began concentrating exclusively on self-preservation and/or educating the youth. This page was last changed on 15 July 2020, at 00:12. The White Army—aided by the Allied forces (Triple Entente) from countries such as Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Italy and the United States and (sometimes) the Central Powers forces such as Germany and Austria-Hungary—fought in Siberia, Ukraine, and the Crimea. Since Bulgakov was refused permission to publish his most important works, he pleaded with Stalin to be allowed to leave the country. [14][citation needed] Aside from being anti-Bolshevik and anti-Communist[15] and patriotic, the Whites had no set ideology or main leader. The basis for the film's plot is the novel by Mikhail Bulgakov: The White Guard. Consequently, the White movement had no unifying political convictions, as members could be monarchists, republicans,[18] rightists, or Kadets. [21] The Russian ace Alexander Kazakov operated within this unit. After General Denikin's attack upon Moscow failed in 1919, the Armed Forces of the South of Russia retreated. During the Russian Civil War the White movement functioned Christopher Lazarski, "White Propaganda Efforts," 689. This community-in-exile of anti-communists often divided into liberal and the more conservative segments, with some still hoping for the restoration of the Romanov dynasty. It was not reprinted in Russia until 1966. Stalin personally arranged for a job for him at the Moscow Arts Theatre. Units were often formed spontaneously in response to local conditions, events or Bolshevik actions. Some supported Zog I of Albania during the 1920s and a few independently served with the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War. Whites differed on policies toward the German Empire in its extended occupation of western Russia, the Baltic states, Poland and the Ukraine on the Eastern Front in the closing days of the World War, debating whether or not to ally with it. After the first two parts of The White Guard were published in Rossiya, Bulgakov was invited to write a version for the stage. Depending on the time and place, those White Army supporters might also exchange right-wing allegiance for allegiance to the Red Army. [20] The White Army's rank-and-file comprised active anti-Bolsheviks, such as Cossacks, nobles, and peasants, as conscripts and as volunteers. Two claimants to the empty throne emerged during the Civil War, Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich of Russia and Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856–1929). Beloye dvizheniye, IPA: [ˈbʲɛləɪ dvʲɪˈʐenʲɪɪ]) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Бѣлогвардейцы/Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Бѣлые/Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of anti-communist forces that fought the communist Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/1923) and that to a lesser extent continued operating as militarized associations of insurrectionists both outside and within Russian borders in Siberia until roughly World War II (1939–1945). The White movement (Russian: Бѣлое движеніе/Белое движение, tr. The historical background of the film is the fall of the Ukrainian power of Hetman Skoropadsky, the capture of Kiev by UNR troops and their subsequent flight under the blows of the Red Army. University Publications of America. (first complete English edition). ", Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War § White armies, Museum and Archives of the White Movement,, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, War faction articles using ambiguous parameters, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Political contra-distinction to "the Reds", whose revolutionary, This page was last edited on 12 October 2020, at 14:01.

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